# Iterating lists in Python for Dummies

Forward and backward iterations in Python

Imagine your in a situation that needs to go through the elements of a list in backward order. To achieve this we need to read the last element first and then the last but one and so on till the element at index 0…

# Find the longest sequence of multiple Parentheses

Problem statement: Given a string `s` consisting of open and closed brackets `"("` and `")"`, return the length of the longest substring in `s` that is a valid string of parentheses.

# Example 1

Input

`s = ")(())(()"`

Output

`4`

Explanation

`"(())"` is the longest substring with valid parentheses.

Naive approach: Find all…

# Find the sum of Z shape in the given matrix

Approach1:

Simple algorithm

• n := row count of matrix
• if n <= 2, then
• return sum of all elements in matrix
• first_row := sum of first row
• last_row := sum of last row
• diagonal = sum of matrix[i, n-1-i] for all i from 1 to n-2
• return first_row + last_row…

# Atbash cipher program

Question: You are given a lowercase alphabet string `text`. Return a new string where every character in `text` is mapped to its reverse in the alphabet, so that `a` becomes `z`, `b` becomes `y`, `c` becomes `x`, and so on.

# Example 1

Input

`text = "abcdef"`

Output

`"zyxwvu"`

Algorithm

Find a new…

# Finding Hamming Distance

Given two integers `x`, and `y` return the number of positions where their values differ in their binary representations as a 32-bit integer.

# Example 1

Input

`x = 9y = 5`

# What on earth is OOPs(Object-Oriented Programming)?

OOP is the most popular way of analysing, designing, and developing application systems, especially on complex scientific computing software systems. The perspective that views the elements of a given situation by decomposing them into objects and object relationships. This approach used to design modular and reusable software systems.

What is…

# A mathematician can be a programmer?

Computer Science actually came from Mathematics. Many mathematicians are programmers that have written their programs in the words of Mathematics, using mathematical notation.

As mathematicians’ problem-solving techniques became more sophisticated and the problems they were solving became more complex, they were interested in finding automated ways of solving these problems…

# Programm to find Pangram in a given sentence

How to do this using programming?

What on earth is a pangram?

A pangram is a sentence or expression that uses all the letters of the alphabet. …

# Life of microcontroller

What is the fuzz about microcontrollers?

The generic definition of a microcontroller is a small, low-cost and self-contained computer-on-a-chip that can be used as an embedded system. A microcontrollers work at clock rate frequencies, which usually include:

• An 8 or 16 or 32 or 64 bit microprocessor.
• A little measure…

# Linear Programming using Python 🐍

Linear programming is a special case of mathematical programming, also known as mathematical optimization. Linear optimization is a mathematical programming technique to obtain the best result or outcome, like maximum profit or least cost, in a mathematical model whose requirements are represented by linear relationships.

Pillars of LP:

• Objective Function… 